The vision behind introducing the e-classroom in Edify Schools, was to help educators learn about the latest technology and how it can be integrated and applied as a powerful learning tool in the curriculum. E-classrooms were created and designed for students and facilitators to attain these technological skills. By integrating technology in the classroom, facilitators are able to teach their students as to how to use 21st century technological skills now and in the future.
The e-classrooms at Edify has partnered with ‘Edurite’ to provide resources specially designed to enhance the research skills of the students. We at Edify Schools believe in learning beyond the books and cater to the changing dynamics of knowledge through the power tool called technology.
About IGCSE Curriculum :
University of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) is the world’s largest provider of international qualifications for 5–19 year olds. It is a part of the University of Cambridge and a not-for-profit organisation.
The mission is to work in partnership with education providers worldwide to deliver high-quality and leading-edge assessment services. We aim to be the preferred international provider of assessment services in the world through harnessing potential, lasting partnerships, high quality, charitable status and innovation.
Developing successful students
CIE was formally established in 1998 to provide high-quality, leading-edge qualifications that meet the ongoing demands of employers and educators across the world.
They offer a broad range of internationally recognised qualifications, both academic and vocational, which we have designed to develop successful students worldwide. These include general qualifications including Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A Level, Cambridge O Level and Cambridge Pre-U, a new post-16 qualification, plus a range of vocational Cambridge International Diplomas.
Working with governments around the world
CIE has worked in partnership with ministries of education, qualifications authorities and examination and assessment boards around the world for over 150 years. In some countries such as Singapore Cambridge examinations are the state qualification for students in secondary school. Tens of thousands of students take Cambridge O Levels every year.
In other parts of the world such as Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, CIE has worked with governments to reform education systems, and helped to localise examinations by training officials, teachers, markers and examiners in curriculum development and assessment.
CIE is part of Cambridge Assessment, Europe’s largest assessment agency and a department of the University of Cambridge. Cambridge Assessment was established in 1858 as the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES).
The International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) is a globally recognised qualification, offer by the world famous University of Cambridge .
IGCSE,formed in 1988, It develops and encourages vital educational skills, including oral skills, investigative skills, problem solving, team work, recall of knowledge, and initiative.. The IGCSE programme has worldwide status and credibility. In India, the course is delivered in over 200 schools .. It is recognised by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) as being at par with CBSE, IGCSE, etc.
Schools worldwide have helped develop Cambridge IGCSE. It incorporates the best in international education for students at this level. It develops in line with changing needs, and is regularly updated and extended. Cambridge IGCSE teachers can draw on excellent resources, training and advice from subject experts.
How does the IGCSE compare to other programmes like CBSE, IGCSE or the Middle Years Programme of the IB?
Like other modern programmes, IGCSE offers a wider range of subjects and encourages high academic standards through a practical approach to teaching and learning. Assessment is not limited to conventional written papers and they consist of a variety of tests e.g. oral and listening tests.
IGCSE is a balanced curriculum and a flexible course of study.
Most subjects offer a choice between core curriculum and extended curriculum. This gives students of all ability levels the freedom to choose subjects that are right for them and, thereby, the opportunity to score good grades.
The core curriculum is an overview of the subject and is suitable for students who are expected to achieve grades C to G.
A youth’s plea against an institute for allegedly not providing him with an internship or job as promised at the time of admission, has been rejected by a consumer forum here which observed that “education is not a commodity“.
A Delhi District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum (West) rejected the plea of the youth who sought refund of the Rs 3.52 lakh fee paid by him to pursue PG Diploma in Event Management and Public Relations at a private institute here.
The complainant, a Noida resident, had also sought compensation of Rs 40,000 on account of mental pain and agony and deficiency in service from the institute and its Executive Director.
“The complainant took admission with the opposite party, an education institution for pursuing PG Diploma in event management and Public Relations on payment of requisite fee.
“The opposite parties (institute and Executive Director) are imparting education. Therefore as held by Supreme Court, National Commission and State Commission of Chandigarh consistently, education is not a commodity and they are not service providers and the complainant is not a consumer under the Consumer Protection Act,” a forum bench headed by Presiding Officer R S Bagri said.
The forum accepted the assertion of the institute and its executive director that the complaint was not maintainable as the complainant “does not fall within the definition of consumer as provided under the Consumer Protection Act.”
It observed that “education is not a commodity”.
The bench, while deciding the matter, considered various verdicts of the Supreme Court, National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission and a state commission, all of which had held that students are not consumers.
The youth had approached the consumer forum after he was refused a refund from the institute, which denied the allegations of any unfair trade practice.
On 29th August 1905, field hockey champion Dhyan Chand was born in Allahabad. Dhyan Chand is remembered for his quick goal scoring and for winning three Olympic gold medals for India.
Dhyan Chand Singh, popularly known as Dhyan Chand was born in Allahabad to Sameshwar Dutt, who used to work in the British Army and play hockey in the army as well. Chand’s younger brother, Roop Singh was a prolific hockey player as well. Since Dhyan Chand’s father was in the army, he was transferred to many places across India and finally the family settled in Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh.
As a young boy, Chand had no interest in hockey and the only sport he was fond of was wrestling. Though he did play a few games of hockey casually with friends, Dhyan Chand did not take the sport seriously until later. Dhyan Chand joined the army at the age of 16, which is when he began playing hockey. Dhyan Chand had a habit of practicing hockey at night, when the moon came out (since there were no floodlights in those days). It was because of this that he was named “Chand” which means moon, by his friends.
Between 1922 and 1926 Dhyan Chand played hockey solely for army hockey tournaments. He was soon selected for the Indian Army team which was to tour New Zealand. There the team won 18 matches, and lost 1, while 2 matches were drawn. Chand received tremendous praise from all the spectators. After this, Chand won the first of two test matches against New Zealand. After this victory, Chand was promoted to Lance Naik on his return to India.
The Indian Hockey Federation successfully lobbied to reintroduce field hockey in the Amsterdam Olympics in 1928. An inter-provincial tournament was held in 1925 to choose India’s national hockey team. Five teams took part in the trial and Dhyan Chand was selected from the army to play for the United Provinces team. Impressed by his spectacular performance in the trials, Dhyan Chand was included in the Indian team as a centre forward. At that point the Indian Hockey Federation (IHF) was low on funds, but received no financial support from Indian provinces. Nonetheless, the IHF managed to collect funds and received a quiet send off to England in March and played 11 matches, winning all of them in the Folkestone Festival. It is believed that Britain did not send their team after their national team had been defeated by the Indians at Folkestone.
On 17th May 1928 the Indian National Hockey team made its Olympic debut against Austria in which Chand scored 3 out of the 6 goals. Team India then went on to win all the matches that year and defeated Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland and even the host nation, the Netherlands. Dhyan Chand was the top scorer throughout the tournament and following his impressive performance he popularly came to be known as the “Wizard of Hockey”. A newspaper quoted the following about Dhyan Chand after India’s triumphant victory, “This is not a game of hockey, but magic. Dhyan Chand is in fact the magician of hockey”. On the team’s return back to India, the team was received by thousands of cheering fans, as opposed to the handful of people who had seen the team off at the airport.
Back to serving in the army, Dhyan Chand had lost touch with the IHC. When the inter-Provincial tournaments were being held to select the new Olympics team, the IHC contacted the Army Sports Control Board to allow Chand leave to participate in the nationals. When Chand’s platoon refused, he was selected for the Olympics team without any formalities. Other players however had to prove themselves in the Inter-Provincial tournament, which was eventually won by Punjab. Seven players from Punjab were selected. Chand along with other Olympians, Broome, Eric Pinnigar, Leslie Hammond and Richard Allen were part of the team by default. This team chosen for the Olympics practiced in India before heading to Colombo (Sri Lanka). The Indian team defeated the All Ceylon team by their spectacular performance.
Following this victory the Indian team left for San Francisco for the Olympics which were to take place from 30th July 1932. On 4th August 1932, India played its first match against Japan and won. During the final match against USA on 11th August 1932, India won, scoring not only a gold medal but also setting a world record at that time. During those Olympic Games, Chand and his brother scored 25 out of the 35 goals scored by India, which led their pair being nicknamed as the “Hockey Twins”.
The victorious team then proceeded on a tour of the USA and played another match against the States which they won again. After leaving from New York the Indian team reached England, from where they embarked on a tour across various countries like Germany, Holland and Hungary. By the end of the tour, India had played 37 matches out of which it won 34 matches, 2 matches were drawn and one was abandoned. Out of the 338 goals India had scored, Chand scored 133 of them.
In December 1934 the IHF decided to send a team to New Zealand. Chand and his brother Roop Singh were selected in this team, Dhyan Chand, as captain. In a subsequent tour, India played 48 matches, 28 in New Zealand and the rest in Ceylon and Australia. India won all the matches. Of those 48 matches, Chand played in 43 and scored 201 goals.
Once again after returning to India, Dhyan Chand resumed his duty with the army. In December 1935, the IHC again held an Inter-Provincial Tournament to select players for the Olympics team. Dhyan Chand’s platoon again refused to let him go and once again he was selected in the hockey team without any formalities. Dhyan Chand and the Indian team went on to win the Berlin Olympics in 1936 where he was honoured with the Olive Crown. Later in November 1947, Dhyan Chand was a part of India’s tour to East Africa where they won all the matches.
After returning from East Africa, Dhyan Chand reduced his involvement with serious hockey and only played a few matches. At the age of 51, in 1956 Dhyan Chand retired from the army as a Major and was honoured with the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in the same year. Following his retirement, Dhyan Chand coached hockey players in Mount Abu. Post his retirement; Dhyan Chand also held the position of Chief Hockey Coach at the National Institute of Sports in Patiala for many years.
Dhyan Chand passed away on 3rd December 1979 in Delhi, due to liver cancer. Even after his death, Dhyan Chand remains a legend in the field of hockey. His birthday, 29th August is celebrated as National Sports Day every year and the President of India gives away sports related awards, like the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award and the Dronacharya Award at the Rashtrapati Bhawan on this day.
The 20th National Award 2012, the Gem of India, awarded by the Union Minister of India, was given to Dhyan Chand. The award was received by Dhyan Chand’s son, Ashok Dhyan Chand (a hockey Olympian in his own right) on behalf of his deceased father.
The Dhyan Chand Award, India’s highest award for lifetime achievement in sports is awarded every year to sportspeople who contribute to sports not only by their performance, but also after their retirement. In 2002, the National Stadium in Delhi was renamed the Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium in his honour. Apart from India, even the Astro-turf hockey pitch at the India Gymkhana in London is named after Dhyan Chand. A tube station in London is also named after this hockey legend.
There are also many interesting anecdotes associated with Dhyan Chand. It is believed that Adolf Hitler offered Dhyan Chand the position of Major in the British India Army after watching his spectacular performance in the 1936 Berlin Olympics, German citizenship and also offered to promote him to the position of Colonel in the army. But Dhyan Chand refused this offer.
Dhyan Chand’s autobiography, “Goal” was published in 1952 in Chennai and he will always be remembered as a legendary sportsperson who won India many awards and accolades.
Written by ~ CHARITHARDHA ( Sr.SEO EXECUTIVE at MDN EDIFY)
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During this octave of Christmas the Church celebrates the memory of the small children of the neighborhood of Bethlehem put to death by Herod. Sacrificed by a wicked monarch, these innocent lives bear witness to Christ who was persecuted from the time of His birth by a world which would not receive Him.
“O God, whom the Holy Innocents confessed and proclaimed on this day, not by speaking but by dying, grant, we pray, that the faith in your which we confess with our lips may also speak through our manner of life. Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.” ~ Collect Prayer ~ Let us also pray for all children who have gone before us and are now little angels in heaven. May their souls rest in eternal peace.
Boxing Dayis a holiday traditionally celebrated the day following Christmas Day, when servants and tradesmen would receive gifts, known as a “Christmas box”, from their bosses or employers, in the United Kingdom, Barbados, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia, Bermuda, New Zealand, Kenya, South Africa, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and other former British colonies. Today, Boxing Day is the bank holiday that generally takes place on 26 December.
In South Africa, Boxing Day was renamed Day of Goodwill in 1994. In the Roman Catholic Church’s liturgical calendar, the day is dedicated to St. Stephen, so is known as St. Stephen’s Day to Catholics, and to the population generally in Italy, Ireland, Finland, and Alsace and Moselle in France. It is also known as both St. Stephen’s Day and the Day of the Wren or Wren’s Day in Ireland. In some European countries, most notably Germany, Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands and those in Scandinavia, 26 December is celebrated as the Second Christmas Day.
Various competing theories for the origins of the term boxing day circulate in popular culture, none of which are definitive. However, the Oxford English Dictionary gives the earliest attestations of the term as being from England in the 1830s, defining it as ‘the first week-day after Christmas-day, observed as a holiday on which post-men, errand-boys, and servants of various kinds expect to receive a Christmas-box’.
The term Christmas-box, meanwhile, dates back to the 17th century, and among other things meant:
A present or gratuity given at Christmas: in Great Britain, usually confined to gratuities given to those who are supposed to have a vague claim upon the donor for services rendered to him as one of the general public by whom they are employed and paid, or as a customer of their legal employer; the undefined theory being that as they have done offices for this person, for which he has not directly paid them, some direct acknowledgement is becoming at Christmas.
In Britain, it was a custom for tradespeople to collect “Christmas boxes” of money or presents on the first weekday after Christmas as thanks for good service throughout the year. This is mentioned in Samuel Pepys’ diary entry for 19 December 1663. This custom is linked to an older English tradition: since they would have to wait on their masters on Christmas Day, the servants of the wealthy were allowed the next day to visit their families. The employers would give each servant a box to take home containing gifts, bonuses and sometimes leftover food.
The European tradition, which has long included giving money and other gifts to those who were needy and in service positions, has been dated to the Middle Ages, but the exact origin is unknown. It is believed to be in reference to the Alms Box placed in areas of worship to collect donations to the poor. Also, it may come from a custom in the late Roman/early Christian era, wherein metal boxes placed outside churches were used to collect special offerings tied to the Feast of Saint Stephen, which in the Western Church falls on the same day as Boxing Day.
Boxing Day is a secular holiday that is traditionally celebrated on 26 December, the day after Christmas. 26 December is also St. Stephen’s Day, a religious holiday. When 26 December falls on a Sunday, Boxing Day in many Commonwealth countries and former British dominions is moved to 27 December. In the UK, Boxing Day is a bank holiday. If Boxing Day falls on a Saturday, the following Monday is given as a substitute bank holiday. On the occasion when Christmas Day is on a Saturday and 26 December on a Sunday, the following Monday, 27 December, is the substitute bank holiday for Boxing Day and Tuesday, 28 December, the substitute bank holiday for Christmas Day.
In Australia, Boxing Day is a federal public holiday. In the Australian state of South Australia, 28 December is a public holiday known as Proclamation Day and Boxing Day is not normally a public holiday. The holiday for Proclamation Day is observed on the first weekday after Christmas Day or the Christmas Day holiday. Nowadays Boxing Day is popular in Australia as the first day of a Test cricket match held at the MCG and the annual Sydney to Hobart yacht race. A Test match is also often held in South Africa starting on Boxing Day.
In New Zealand, Boxing Day is a statutory holiday; penalty rates and lieu time are provided to employees who work on Boxing Day.
In Canada, Boxing Day is a federal statutory holiday. Government offices, banks and post offices/delivery are closed. In some Canadian provinces, Boxing Day is a statutory holiday that is always celebrated on 26 December. In Canadian provinces where Boxing Day was a statutory holiday, and it falls on a Saturday or Sunday, compensation days are given in the following week.
In the United States, 26 December is given as a holiday to state employees in some, mainly southern, states: Kansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas but it is not known as Boxing Day.
In the UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, Boxing Day is primarily known as a shopping holiday, much like Black Friday (the day after Thanksgiving) in the United States. Boxing Day sales are common in Canada. It is a time when shops have sales, often with dramatic price reductions. For many merchants, Boxing Day has become the day of the year with the greatest number of returns. In the UK in 2009 it was estimated that up to 12 million shoppers appeared at the sales (a rise of almost 20% compared to 2008, although this was also affected by the fact that the VAT was about to revert to 17.5% from 1 January, following the temporary reduction to 15%).
Many retailers open very early (typically 5 am or even earlier) and offer doorbuster deals and loss leaders to draw people to their stores. It is not uncommon for long queues to form early in the morning of 26 December, hours before the opening of shops holding the big sales, especially at big-box consumer electronics retailers. Many stores have a limited quantity of big draw or deeply discounted items. Because of the shoulder-to-shoulder crowds, many choose to stay home and avoid the hectic shopping experience. The local media often cover the event, mentioning how early the shoppers began queuing up, providing video of shoppers queuing and later leaving with their purchased items. Many retailers have implemented practices aimed at managing large numbers of shoppers. They may limit entrances, restrict the number of patrons in a store at a time, provide tickets to people at the head of the queue to guarantee them a hot ticket item or canvass queued-up shoppers to inform them of inventory limitations.
In recent years, retailers have expanded deals to “Boxing Week”. While Boxing Day is 26 December, many retailers will run the sales for several days before or after 26 December, often up to New Year’s Eve. Notably, in the recession of late 2008, a record number of retailers were holding early promotions due to a weak economy. Canada’s Boxing Day has often been compared with the American Super Saturday, the Saturday before Christmas.
In some areas of Canada, particularly in Atlantic Canada and parts of Northern Ontario, most retailers are prohibited from opening on Boxing Day, either by provincial law or municipal bylaw, or instead by informal agreement among major retailers to provide a day of relaxation following Christmas Day. In these areas, sales otherwise scheduled for 26 December are moved to the 27th. The city council of Greater Sudbury, Ontario, which was the largest city in Canada to maintain this restriction as of the early 2010s, formally repealed its store hours bylaw on 9 December 2014.
In 2009, many retailers with both online and High Street stores launched their online sales on Christmas Eve and their High Street sales on Boxing Day.
In the United Kingdom, it is traditional for the Premier League (England), Scottish Premiership (Scotland) and NIFL Premiership (Northern Ireland), as well as the lower divisions and rugby leagues, to hold a full programme of football and rugby union matches on Boxing Day. Traditionally, matches on Boxing Day are played against local rivals. This was originally to avoid teams and their fans having to travel a long distance to an away game on the day after Christmas Day. It also makes the day an important one in the sporting calendar. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, much anticipated cricket Test matches are played on Boxing Day. Prior to the formation of leagues, a number of important rugby fixtures took place on Boxing Day notably Llanelli v London Welsh and Leicester v The Barbarians.
Boxing Day Meet of the Blencathra Foxhounds in Keswick, 1962
Boxing Day is one of the main days in the hunting calendar for hunts in the UK and US, with most hunts (both mounted foxhound or harrier packs and foot packs of beagles or bassets) holding meets, often in town or village centres.
Several ice hockey contests are associated with the day. The IIHF World U20 Championship typically begins on 26 December, while the Spengler Cup also begins on 26 December in Davos, Switzerland; the Spengler Cup competition includes HC Davos, Team Canada, and other top European Hockey teams. The National Hockey League traditionally had close to a full slate of games (10 were played in 2011), following the league-wide days off given for Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. However, the 2013 collective bargaining agreement (which followed a lock-out) extended the league mandate of Christmas Eve and Christmas Day off to include Boxing Day, except when it falls on a Saturday, in which case the league can choose to make 23 December a league-wide off day instead for that year. In some African Commonwealth nations, particularly Ghana, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania, prize fighting contests are held on Boxing Day. This practice has also been followed for decades in Guyana and Italy.
A notable tradition in Sweden is Annandagsbandy, which formerly marked the start of the bandy season and always draw large crowds. Games traditionally begin at 1:15 pm.
Udham Singh Kamboj (26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940) was an Indian revolutionary best known for assassinating Michael O’Dwyer on 13 March 1940 in what has been described as an avenging of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre. Singh is a prominent figure of the Indian independence struggle. He is sometimes referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh Kamboj (the expression “Shaheed-i-Azam,” Urdu: شهید اعظم, means “the great martyr”). A district (Udham Singh Nagar) of Uttarakhand is named after him.
Singh was born Sher Singh on 26 December 1899, at Sunam in the Sangrur district of Punjab, India, to a Kamboj clan. His father, Sardar Tehal Singh Jammu (known as Chuhar Singh before taking the Amrit), was a railway crossing watchman in the village of Upalli. His mother died in 1901, and his father in 1907.
After his father’s death, Singh and his elder brother, Mukta Singh, were taken in by the Central Khalsa Orphanage Putlighar in Amritsar. At the orphanage, Singh was administered the Sikh initiatory rites and received the name of Udham Singh. He passed his matriculation examination in 1918 and left the orphanage in 1919.
On 10 April 1919, a number of local leaders allied to the Indian National Congress including Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested under the Rowlatt Act. Protestors against the arrests were fired on by British troops, precipitating a riot during which British banks were burned and four Europeans were killed. On 13 April, over twenty thousand unarmed protestors were assembled in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar. Singh and his friends from the orphanage were serving water to the crowd.[verification needed]
Troops were dispatched to restore order after the riots, under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer. Dyer ordered his troops to fire without warning on the assembled crowd in Jallianwala Bagh. Since the only exit was barred by soldiers, people tried to escape by climbing the park walls or jumping into a well for protection. An estimated 379 people were killed and over 1,200 were wounded although that has been debated.[verification needed]
Singh became involved in revolutionary politics and was deeply influenced by Bhagat Singh and his revolutionary group. In 1924, Singh became involved with the Ghadar Party, organizing Indians overseas towards overthrowing colonial rule. In 1927, he returned to India on orders from Bhagat Singh, bringing 25 associates as well as revolvers and ammunition. Soon after, he was arrested for possession of unlicensed arms. Revolvers, ammunition, and copies of a prohibited Ghadar Party paper called “Ghadr-i-Gunj” (“Voice of Revolt”) were confiscated. He was prosecuted and sentenced to five years in prison.
Upon his release from prison in 1931, Singh’s movements were under constant surveillance by the Punjab police. He made his way to Kashmir, where he was able to evade the police and escape to Germany. In 1934, Singh reached London, where he planned to assassinate Reginald Dyer.[verification needed]
Singh (second from the left) being taken from 10 Caxton Hall after the assassination of Michael O’Dwyer
On 1 April 1940, Singh was formally charged with the murder of Michael O’Dwyer.. While awaiting trial in Brixton Prison, Singh went on a 42-day hunger strike and had to be forcibly fed. On 4 June 1940, his trial commenced at the Central Criminal Court, Old Bailey, before Justice Atkinson. When asked about his motivation, Singh explained:
I did it because I had a grudge against him. He deserved it. He was the real culprit. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people, so I have crushed him. For full 21 years, I have been trying to wreak vengeance. I am happy that I have done the job. I am not scared of death. I am dying for my country. I have seen my people starving in India under the British rule. I have protested against this, it was my duty. What a greater honour could be bestowed on me than death for the sake of my motherland? [verification needed]
Singh was convicted and sentenced to death. On 31 July 1940, Singh was hanged at Pentonville Prison and buried within the prison grounds.
In press statements, Mahatma Gandhi condemned the 10 Caxton Hall shooting saying, “the outrage has caused me deep pain. I regard it as an act of insanity…I hope this will not be allowed to affect political judgement.” The Hindustan Socialist Republican Army condemned Mahatma Gandhi’s statement, considering it to be a challenge to the Indian Youths.
PtJawaharlal Nehru wrote in The National Herald, “[The] assassination is regretted but it is earnestly hoped that it will not have far-reaching repercussions on [the] political future of India.” In its 18 March 1940 issue, Amrita Bazar Patrika wrote, “O’Dwyer’s name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget”.
The Punjab section of Congress in the Punjab Assembly led by Dewan Chaman Lal refused to vote for the Premier’s motion to condemn the assassination.
In April 1940, at the Annual Session of the All India Congress Committee held in commemoration of 21st anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, the youth wing of the Indian National Congress Party displayed revolutionary slogans in support of Singh, applauding his action as patriotic and heroic.
Singh had some support from the international press. The Times of London called him a “fighter for freedom”, his actions “an expression of the pent-up fury of the downtrodden Indian people.”Bergeret from Rome praised Singh’s action as courageous. In March 1940, Indian National Congress leader Jawahar Lal Nehru, condemned the action of Singh as senseless. In 1962, Nehru reversed his stance and applauded Singh with the following published statement: “I salute Shaheed-i-Azam Udham Singh with reverence who had kissed the noose so that we may be free.”
Swami, Praveen (Nov 1997). “Jallianwala Bagh revisited: A look at the actual history of one of the most shocking events of the independence struggle” . Frontline. 22 14 (India). pp. 1–14. Religious Dimensions of Indian Nationalism . p. 156. Sikander Singh (2002). Pre-meditated Plan of Jallianwala Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad. p. 139. Stephen Stratford. “British Military & Criminal History” . Sikander Singh (2002). Pre-meditated Plan of Jallianwala Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad. p. 139. Swami, Praveen (Nov 1997). “Jallianwala Bagh revisited: A look at the actual history of one of the most shocking events of the independence struggle” . Frontline. 22 14 (India). pp. 1–14. Sikander Singh (2002). Pre-meditated Plan of Jallianwala Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad. p. 139. Academy of the Punjab in North America. “Shaheed Udham Singh (1899-1940)” . Dr. Fauja Singh (1972). Eminent Freedom Fighters of Punjab. pp. 239–40. Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. Murder of Michael O’Dwyer, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, 2002, p 180-181, Prof Sikander Singh CRIM 1/1177, Public Record Office, London, p. 64 Government of India, Home Department, Political File No 18 March 1940, National Archives of India, New Delhi, p40 Harijan, 15 March 1940 Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 216. National Herald, 15 March 1940. Vinay Lal (May 2008). “Manas: History and Politics, British India – Udham Singh in the Popular Memory” . Retrieved 23 May 2014. Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 300. Manmath Nath Gupta (1970). Bhagat Singh and his Times. Delhi. p. 18. The Times (London). 16 March 1940. Missing or empty |title= (help) Public and Judicial Department, File No L/P + J/7/3822. 10 Caxton Hall outrage. London: India Office Library and Records. pp. 13–14.
Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 300.
Fenech, Louis E. (October 2002). “Contested Nationalisms; Negotiated Terrains: The Way Sikhs Remember Udham Singh ‘Shahid’ (1899–1940)”. Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press) 36 (4): 827–870. doi:10.1017/s0026749x02004031 . JSTOR3876476 . (subscription required)
An article on Udham Singh—Hero Extraordinary in “The Legacy of The Punjab” by R M Chopra, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.